- Ingrown Toenails
- Fungal Nails
- Dry Skin
Degenerative arthritis is a condition that slowly wears away joints (the link where bones meet and move). In the beginning, you may notice that the affected joint seems stiff. It may even ache. As the joint lining (cartilage) breaks down, the bones rub against each other, causing pain and swelling. Over time, bone spurs (small pieces of rough or splintered bone) develop, and the joint’s range of motion becomes limited. But movement doesn’t have to cause pain. The effects of arthritis can be reduced. Talk with your doctor about developing a treatment plan to meet your needs.
Bunions are an enlargement of the big toe joint which usually involves a drifting of the big toe toward the second toe. These can become quite painful especially in certain shoes.Treatment consists of using more comfortable shoes or surgery. Due to many technical advances of equipment and procedures, the surgery is not as painful as it used to be.If you have a bunion, it should be evaluated and you should be fully informed of your treatment options.
Calluses may be the result of excessive pressure under one of your foot bones. Typically, the foot bone involved is a metatarsal. Normal weight bearing under all the metatarsals is evenly distributed. If there is an imbalance causing excessive pressure under one metatarsal, a callus (dead skin) may develop. This can be quite painful with walking and standing.Treatment includes periodic shaving of the callus, padding and orthotics. Surgery may be necessary if the pain continues.
The arch of your foot is its main supportive structure. If this arch loses strength, the bony framework begins to collapse, causing your foot to flatten. Like a sagging bridge, the weakness in the middle strains the joints at both end of your foot.
Causes: There are many causes of flat feet. Some people are born with them. Others acquire flat feet as a result of arthritis, trauma, or musculoskeletal disorders.
Symptoms: Discomfort from flat feet often doesn’t appear for years. At some point, pain may be felt and walking may become awkward as increasing strain is put on your feet and calf muscles.
Related Problems: The excess strain from flat feet can cause other foot problems, such as hammertoes, bunions, heel spurs, arch strain, corns, neuromas, and sagging joints. Flat feet can also affect other parts of the body, causing fatigue, pain, or stiffness on the ankles, knees, hips and lower back.
Fungus may grow in the toenail causing it to become thick and brown. The toe may become painful with shoe gear pressure.Treatment includes trimming the toenail every 2 months. Topical medications are only effective in mild cases. Usually oral medication and/or laser therapy is indicated and to date both of these treatments are the most effective ways in dealing with a difficult and sometimes chronic problem. Surgical removal of the toenail may also be required.
Hammertoes may be the result of excessive contracting of one or more toes. The toes becomes progressively stiff and crooked. On top of the toe a hard skin may develop known as a corn.Treatment includes periodic shaving of the corn, padding or possible surgery to straighten the toe.
Heel Pain may be the result of excessive standing or walking. Often the ligaments become inflamed. This is known as plantar fasciitis. A heel spur may also be developing. Treatment options include strappings, anti-inflammatory medication, custom made orthotics, cortisone injections or possible surgery. Radiofrequency therapy and/or Endoscopic Plantar Fasciotomy are also available treatment options.
Ingrown toenails develop as a result of a curved toenail pushing into the adjacent skin. The side of the toe becomes red, swollen and inflamed which may lead to an infection.Treatment includes removal of the side of the toenail. This is done under local anesthesia. Antibiotics, soaks and pain medications may need to be prescribed.
Commonly called a Morton’s neuroma, this problem begins when the outer coating of a nerve in your foot thickens. This thickening is usually caused by irritation that results when two bones repeatedly rub together (often due to ill-fitting shoes or abnormal bone movement). The area between the third and fourth toes is the most commonly affected, however, the area between the second and third toes is another common irritation point. Nerve problems due to diabetes or alcoholism may also cause neuroma-like symptoms.
Symptoms: The pain from neuromas may start gradually, causing burning, tingling, cramping, or numbness. Symptoms often occur after you’ve been walking or standing for a period of time. It might feel like you’re stepping on a lamp cord. You may need to take your shoe off and rub your foot. In some cases, the pain radiates from the tip of the toes to the ankle.
Treatments may include shoe changes, padding, injections, orthotics and in some cases surgery is required. Fortunately, new surgical techniques are minimally invasive. Learn more about the KobyGard procedure.
This occurs when arteries in the legs become clogged with plaque. The blood flow is then reduced to the feet. This can cause legs to swell, turn red, and potentially cause ulcers/sores on the feet and legs. If not treated properly these foot/leg ulcers can result in amputation. If the arteries are clogged in the legs, the arteries close to the heart may be clogged as well. This is a very important condition to diagnose and treat promptly.
Pressure Ulcers are sores that occur when pressure cuts off the blood supply to the skin. Stress caused by the body’s weight and the impact of striking the ground place the ball of the foot, the big toe, and the heel at greatest risk. Left untreated, an ulcer may allow infection to enter your body. If infection reaches the bloodstream or bone, your life or limb may be at risk. But with your doctor’s help, your health can be protected. Pressure ulcers can be controlled and even prevented.
Fractures result from trauma to the bones of your feet. Depending on the extent of the fracture, treatment options may vary.Often, a hard cast or removable boot is necessary to heal the broken bone. Surgery to realign the broken bone may also be required.
Learn more about Ankle Sprains, Strains and Fractures
Learn more about Complete Plantar Plate Repair
To learn more about the Achilles Tendon Repair procedure, please visit OrthoIllustrated and click “Achilles Tendon Repair” in the bottom right hand corner of the page.
Swollen ankles may be the result of numerous causes including:
Treatment may include soft casts, elevation of your feet or compression stockings. A full history and physical by your primary care physician may be necessary to determine a systemic cause. Often, medication may be necessary.
When you use a set of muscles too much, you’re likely to strain the tendons (soft tissues) that connect those muscles to your bones. At first, pain or swelling may come and go quickly. But if you do too much too soon, your muscles may over-tire again. The strain may cause a tendon’s outer covering to swell or small fibers in a tendon to pull apart. If you keep pushing your muscles, damage to the tendons adds up and tendonitis develops. Over time, pain and swelling may limit your activities. But with your doctor’s help, tendonitis can be controlled. Both symptoms and your risk of future problems can be reduced.
Warts are due to a wart virus that grows inside your skin. They often appear round or irregular in shape. When they become thick and grow deep into the skin, pain may develop.Treatments include routine shaving, topical acids, topical immune response modifiers, liquid nitrogen, or laser removal.